I things as they actually happen,’ he [Walt Disney] wrote, ‘but to give a caricature of life and action.’” (Canemaker 2012) Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) was the world’s first full length animated feature movie. “Its character and personality animation offered, for the first time, a full range of emotions, from laughter to tears.” (Canemaker 2012) Early animation was created with thousands of hand-drawn transparent Cels. Transparent cels reduced the work by drawing the slowly-changing backgrounds on separate cels. Walt Disney developed a revolutionary multiplane camera, which featured up to seven layers of background artwork shot by a single camera to give the movie a three-dimensional effect. The distant background was on the farthest plane, with trees and other “background” details on intermediate planes, and the moving characters on the front plane. Moving the camera to track the moving characters had the effect of moving the intermediate planes relative to the far background, creating the impression that a 3D model was bring photographed.
The Little Mermaid was the last film to use hand-painted cel animation. As was pointed out in Chapter 5, Disney animators from their beginning for a long time used storyboards as a method for creating movies. One Hundred and One Dalmations was the first Disney animated film to have a fully written script. Up to then, the plots had been worked out primarily in storyboards. Another way to create animated movies is with Stop-Motion Animation. Models with movable parts (arms, legs, etc.) are photographed one Engineers clearly brought Walt’s multiplane camera to life. They also certainly have had roles in creating some models and modeling tools. Mixing computer graphic images (CGI) with live actors and full 3D sets has become common. In the middle of the twentieth century combining hand-drawn animated elements into movies was a big step. The first movie in which this was done was Disney’s The Three Caballeros, in 1945. Another early application was having an animated bluebird sit on the shoulder of Uncle Remus in Disney’s Song of the South.
New Directions in Movies
In the second decade of the 21st century there has been an explosion of movies in 3D. Viewers must wear special glasses, with the two lenses being of different colors or with different polarization. More of the complex cameras and projectors are needed as more films are being shot in 3D and then shown in more theaters. 74 These techniques are not completely new; 3D movies have been around for a long time but were for years restricted in the theaters in which they could be shown. They also tended to be made only when the action being portrayed warranted the extra cost. Think of the results of an explosion appearing to fly into the audience, or of a bug seemingly flying right up to your nose.