The soil formation is a local phenomenon. The fertility of soils defined the economies of the regions in the past. Traditionally, the fertility was continuously replenished or improved with local resources and processes. It was done through various practices such as: application of farm yard manure, compost, silt from water bodies, green mulch, guano, ash and charcoal. In the last 50 years incrementally, soil is being managed partially through external inputs such as Chemical fertilisers. This is because of the changing agriculture systems and availability of resources. The fertility, structure and texture and the environment of soil has changed drastically through the modern interventions. Now the soils are degraded. In this context the farmers should innovate themselves and adapt to new sustainable soil fertility management practices.
The water retention of the soils is a important factor to assess the water budgeting and water use efficiency in a region. The soil moisture sensors installed in the fields of a farmers will support a farmer in understanding the soil moisture at different depths in the soil, rate of percolation of water, and irrigation scheduling. The monitoring of the soil carbon using gas sensors for measuring Carbon dioxide/Methane is a good option for assessing the microbial life and the soil metabolism. In each school soil test kits should be made available and children should participate in collecting the soil samples, test the soils and share the results with
the farmers. Also should make the results available online with details of the location.
These eggs are typically deposited in crevices or on surfaces above or adjacent to decaying matter such as manure or compost and hatch in about 4 days. Able to reach a length of 1 inch (27 mm) and weight of 0.10 to 0.22 g by the end of larval stage. The larval stage last about 22 days.